From The RadioReference Wiki

Microwave radio frequencies are those that reside the upper end of the radio spectrum, or frequencies from approximately 1 GHz to 300 GHz (1,000 to 300,000 MHz) in the UHF, SHF and EHF bands.

Microwave frequencies are often used for fixed point-to-point communications circuits in cases where wire or fiber optic lines are not possible or desireable. Uses include long distance telephone, studio-transmitter links (STL), cell site backhaul, and backhaul for remotely controlled repeaters, base stations, and voting receiver sites in land mobile radio systems.

Microwave communications systems are generally required to use highly directional antennas such as dishes or horns to reduce interference to and from from other stations and maximize frequency reuse. This makes it nearly impossible to receive a signal unless you are in the direct path between the two stations. Microwave system usually employ wide band digital or analog multiplexed modes that are not receivable on common equipment used by most radio hobbyists.

Various microwave bands are used for satellite communications, satellite TV and radio boradcasting, and even amateur radio.

Non-communications uses of microwave frequencies includes air traffic control and weather radar, air navigation aids such as DME and TACAN, microwave ovens and various industrial applications.

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